Studies suggest that Adipotide, or FTPP or proapoptotic peptide, may eliminate fat cells through direct targeting of the blood supply provided to those cells. It is interesting to note that Adipotide has been suggested to differentiate the blood vessels in fat cells as opposed to blood vessels found elsewhere, and as a result, it may be a highly selective compound. As suggested by studies conducted on monkeys, Adipotide may result in weight reduction, but it may also improve insulin sensitivity and mitigate some of the symptoms stemming from type 2 diabetes.
Adipotide Peptide and Weight Loss
The year 2011 saw the beginning of phase I of experimental trials for a substance called Adipotide, which was created to determine whether or not it might eliminate fat cells. Adipotide was presented to rhesus monkeys for testing, and the results suggested that the compound may have induced apoptosis in the targeted blood vessels of white adipose tissue (fat). The fat cells perished because they were cut off from their blood supply. The outcome was a steep drop in body mass index (BMI), a steep drop in weight, and possibly better insulin resistance features.
It is interesting to note that presentation with Adipotide and the accompanying loss of fat appeared to result in reduction in weight but also appeared to have led to changes in eating behavior. Adipotide seemed to have induced weight loss in monkeys, accompanied by a reduced overall food intake.
Some data suggests that a protein receptor known as prohibitin may be responsible for mediating the targeting of Adipotide to the blood arteries that supply fat cells. There is a possibility that the membrane protein known as prohibitin is present in cancer cells and blood arteries that supply white fat. There is information to suggest that Adipotide may interact with the protein in question. If it turns out that prohibitin is exclusively located in the vasculature of fat and cancer tissue, Adipotide might prove fruitful in clinical testing.
Adipotide Peptide and Cancer
There is data suggesting that prohibitin, the chemical Adipotide that most likely targets fat cells, may have a role in developing some cancers. It is known that cancer cells must have access to significant blood supply to develop and metastasize. It is possible that the ability to target prohibitin in cancer cells may pave the way for new ways to target cancer cells without causing damage to the surrounding tissues.
Adipotide Peptide and Glucose Tolerance
The phrase glucose tolerance refers to higher blood sugar levels than normal. A blood test is often used to diagnose the condition, and the diagnosis is validated by measuring glucose levels in the blood during fasting. Alternatively, a glucose tolerance test may be presented, in which the subject consumes a predetermined quantity of sugar before checking their blood sugar levels. A model’s ability to tolerate glucose may serve as a surrogate for diagnosing diabetes; an increasing glucose tolerance may signal an impending diagnosis of diabetes.
Instances of poor glucose tolerance may have a higher likelihood of developing overt type 2 diabetes, which may require supplementation in the form of metformin to combat, and, in some circumstances, insulin. The research results on Adipotide have suggested that the peptide may potentially provide a significant increase in glucose tolerance that is both quick and independent of weight.
This theory may be key, as it suggests a decrease in white fat by Adipotide might improve glucose tolerance independent of the effects on weight. This finding is important because it implies that Adipotide may reduce weight. To put it another way, the loss of fat is more essential than the reduction of weight in this case. These discoveries not only pave the way for the creation of innovative ways to manage pre-diabetes and diabetes, but they also serve to clarify and explain the processes that, in the first place, contribute to the development of diabetes.
Future Research in Adipotide
Research on Adiposide is mostly focused on studying diabetes and weight reduction. Findings imply that the peptide may eliminate certain cells inside the blood vessels that supply fatty tissue, leading to the death of those blood vessels and, consequently, the fat cells that those blood vessels feed. Because Adipotide is an anti-angiogenic peptide, it may work on the cardiovascular system, namely the blood vessels. Anti-angiogenic compounds are now receiving a great deal of attention in cancer management. There is not a lot of study on the function of Adipotide in cancer, but what there is seems promising.
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[i] K. F. Barnhart et al., “A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys,” Sci. Transl. Med., vol. 3, no. 108, p. 108ra112, Nov.2011.
[ii] M. G. Kolonin, P. K. Saha, L. Chan, R. Pasqualini, and W. Arap, “Reversal of obesity by
targeted ablation of adipose tissue,” Nat. Med., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 625–632, Jun. 2004.
[iii] F. I. Staquicini et al., “Vascular ligand-receptor mapping by direct combinatorial selection in cancer patients,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 108, no. 46, pp. 18637–18642, Nov. 2011.
[iv] D.-H. Kim et al., “Rapid and weight-independent improvement of glucose tolerance induced by a peptide designed to elicit apoptosis in adipose tissue endothelium,” Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 2299–2310, Sep. 2012.
[v] L. Criscione, “Comment on ‘a peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and
improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys,’” Sci. Transl. Med., vol. 4, no. 131, pp. 131le2; author reply 131lr2, Apr. 2012.