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Pap smear Singapore: What Infections can they detect?

    A Pap smear is also known as the Pap test. It is a routine screening procedure for examining cervical cells for abnormalities or infections.

    It is a quick and painless test and involves the collection of samples of cells from the cervix. These cells are then examined for signs of infections or abnormalities.

    In today’s post, we’ll explain how pap smears are performed. We’ll also show you the specific types of infections it can help detect. For a detailed guide on Pap smear in Singapore, please check this page: Otherwise, keep reading!

    How is a Pap smear Performed?

    Your women’s health specialist may recommend a pap smear in Singapore if they suspect that you have a risk of cervical cancer. Otherwise, it is a recommended routine test for women between the ages 21 and 65.

    During a Pap smear, your women’s health specialist will gently insert a speculum into the vagina to provide access to the cervix. They will then use a small brush or spatula to collect a sample of cervical cells.

    The sample will be carefully placed on a glass slide. It may also be placed in a liquid medium and then forwarded to a laboratory for analysis.

    Now, Pap smears are generally well-tolerated. However, some women may experience mild discomfort or minor spotting afterward. Here’s a summary of the infections that can be detected by pap smears;

    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    This is the most common sexually transmitted infection in women. It can cause genital warts. It is also strongly linked to cervical cancer.

    Pap smears are highly effective in detecting abnormal cervical cell changes associated with high-risk HPV strains. If abnormal cells are found, further testing would be recommended. Your doctor may recommend further tests like colposcopy, for example to evaluate the extent of the changes.

    Treatment options for HPV focus on managing abnormal cell growth. They’re also designed to prevent the development of cervical cancer.

    • Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

    Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance of the vaginal microbiota. It is characterized by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria.

    Although Pap smears are primarily designed to detect cervical abnormalities, they can indirectly identify signs of bacterial vaginosis. Changes in the appearance of cervical cells during a Pap smear can alert healthcare providers to potential infections.

    They may also alert for imbalances in the vaginal ecosystem. If bacterial vaginosis is suspected, your doctor may recommend additional tests like vaginal pH measurements or swabs.

    Treatment options for bacterial vaginosis typically involve antibiotics. These are designed to help restore the balance of bacteria in the vagina.

    • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

    Pap smears also help flag certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women. Some of the most notable STIs that can be detected via a pap smear include;

    1. Herpes genitalis
    2. Bacterial vaginosis
    3. Trichomoniasis
    4. Candidiasis and
    5. HPV infection

    Detecting these infections during pap smears is particularly important because these infections often present no visible symptoms in their early stages. Early detection allows for prompt treatment.

    This can help you significantly reduce the risk of complications and further transmission. Treatment options for STIs vary depending on the specific infection. Depending on your condition or situation, your doctor may recommend antibiotics or antiviral medications.

    • Yeast Infections

    Pap smears are not primarily designed to detect yeast infections. However, they may indirectly suggest the presence of such infections.

    Abnormal changes in cervical cells observed during a Pap smear could indicate an overgrowth of yeast in the vaginal area. However, Pap smears are not the primary method for diagnosing yeast infections.

    The common symptoms that may be indicative of a yeast infection include;

    • Itching
    • Vaginal discharge, and
    • Discomfort

    Treatment options typically involve antifungal medications to address the underlying infection. Other than the infections, there are also specific abnormalities that your routine pap smear in Singapore can help detect. These include;

    • Cervical Dysplasia

    Cervical dysplasia refers to abnormal changes which can range from mild to severe in the cells of the cervix. A Pap smear could be all you need to detect these changes.

    If during your Pap smear, the abnormal cervical cells are found, further evaluation may be recommended. Your doctor may recommend additional evaluations like colposcopy or biopsy to determine the extent of dysplasia.

    Treatment options for cervical dysplasia aim to remove or destroy the abnormal cells. The removal or destruction of the abnormal cells can help you reduce the risk of progression to cervical cancer.

    • Endometrial Cells

    A Pap smear can also help you detect the presence of endometrial cells which normally line the uterus. If abnormal endometrial cells are observed, it may indicate underlying uterine conditions.

    For example, they may be indicative of endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial cancer. Please note that a Pap smear is not a definitive diagnostic test for these conditions.

    So, further diagnostic procedures may be recommended for a conclusive diagnosis. Your doctor may recommend additional diagnoses like an endometrial biopsy or imaging tests.

    What is the Role of Pap Smears in Preventive Care?

    For women, regular Pap smear screenings are crucial for maintaining your health and well-being. The power of early detection cannot be overstated, as it enables timely intervention and treatment.

    Despite the importance of Pap smears, some misconceptions and concerns exist. It is essential to be aware of these so you are not misled.

    One common myth is that Pap smears are painful or embarrassing. In reality, the procedure is relatively quick. Also, the discomfort depends on your tolerance levels and it is minimal.

    Also, a skilled women’s health specialist will ensure that you feel at ease throughout the procedure. It is also worth mentioning that, there may be concerns on Pap smear frequencies.

    As a basic rule of thumb, most women can benefit by starting regular screenings at the age of 21. They can then continue every three years until the age of 65.

    However, individual circumstances may warrant more frequent or prolonged screening intervals. So, it is best to consult your healthcare provider to determine the appropriate screening schedule based on factors like;

    • Your age
    • Medical history, and
    • Any Risk factors

    The Bottom Line

    For any woman, your health should be a priority, and regular Pap smear screenings are an essential part of proactive healthcare. So, embrace the potential of Pap smears and take control of your well-being, for a healthier future.

    If you’re in Singapore, get in touch with us today to schedule your next screening. Call or visit us at:

    The Health Advisory Clinic

    One Raffles Place, #04-49

    1 Raffles Place, Singapore 048616

    Tel: (+65) 6226 6442